Pelvic Floor and Incontinence

Pelvic floor dysfunction is the inability to control the muscles of the pelvic floor. Pelvic floor muscles are a group of muscles and ligaments in the pelvic region that support the bladder, uterus, vagina, and rectum and help in the functioning of these pelvic organs. Coordinated contracting and relaxing of the pelvic floor muscles controls bladder and bowel functions - the pelvic floor should relax to allow for bowel movements, urination, and, particularly in women, sexual intercourse.

Pelvic Floor and Incontinence Conditions

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Surgical Approaches


  • Vaginal approach
  • Laparotomy

General Procedures

  • Hysterectomy
  • Oopherectomy [removal of the ovary(s)]

Vaginal Vault Suspension/Uterine prolapse, vaginal vault prolapse

  • Sacrocolpopexy
  • Uterosacral ligament suspension
  • Sacrospinous ligament suspension (with or without mesh augmentation)

Hernia Repair

  • Enterocele repair

Bladder suspension/Cystocele repair

  • Paravaginal defect repair
  • Anterior Colporrhaphy (with or without mesh augmentation)

Rectocele Repair

  • Posterior Colporrhaphy (with or without mesh augmentation)

Stress Incontinence

  • Retropubic urethropexy
  • Sling procedure
  • Peri-Urethral bulking agent injection

Overactive Bladder/Urinary Retention

  • InterStim Therapy